Reciprocating compressor is a kind of complex mechanical equipment. There are also many technical means and methods for its condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. The online indirect diagnosis method is usually used, that is, the secondary diagnosis information is used to indirectly judge the state changes of the key components. Common methods include: visual inspection, thermal performance parameter monitoring, vibration and noise monitoring, lubricating oil analysis, expert system and neural network.
(1) Visual inspection
Compressor operators only use ears, eyes, eyes, and experience to judge equipment failures. With the development of mechanical equipment towards a high degree of automation, this method has been unable to meet the current requirements for fault diagnosis of industrial reciprocating compressors.
(2) Thermal performance parameter monitoring
Measure the thermal performance parameters, and judge the state of the industrial reciprocating compressor based on this, so as to diagnose the fault research. Generally, the oil temperature, water temperature, discharge volume, discharge pressure, cooling water volume, etc. of the compressor are monitored through instruments, which provide useful information for finding faults of related components. Due to the lack of accuracy and predictability of the fault point, this method is currently mainly used to monitor the process parameters and the operating status of the compressor.
(3) Vibration noise monitoring
Vibration monitoring and diagnosis of industrial reciprocating compressor failures have made many research results in the laboratory. Use machine surface vibration signals to diagnose piston, cylinder wear, air valve leakage and main bearing status; install vibration sensors on the cylinder head to diagnose in-cylinder faults by analyzing vibration signals; use vibration signals to diagnose main bearing faults of industrial reciprocating compressors; use the pressure wave signal in the lubricating oil pipeline to diagnose the bearing failure of the industrial reciprocating compressor.
However, due to the large background noise interference, the change of the reciprocating mechanical working conditions, the non-stationarity of the signal, the lack of reliable sensors and other reasons, it has not been widely used until now.
(4) Oil monitoring
The analysis of lubricating oil is divided into two categories: one is the analysis of the physical and chemical properties of the oil itself, that is, the viscosity, acidity, moisture, ignition point, flash point, etc. of the lubricating oil; the other is the friction and wear information in the oil analysis, including spectral analysis, ferrograph analysis, particle counting, etc.
The implementation process of the method includes steps such as sampling, sample preparation, obtaining monitoring data, and forming a diagnosis conclusion. The monitoring technology of abrasive particles in lubricating oil can be divided into two categories: online and offline.
Off-line monitoring technologies mainly include oil spectrum analysis, ferrospectroscopy, and the use of scanning electron microscopes and energy spectrometers to analyze ferrographs; on-line monitoring technologies mainly include particle counters, online ferrospectrometers. Among them, optical wear particle counters and electromagnetic wear particle counters have been put into use. The X-ray wear particle online monitors and ultrasonic wear particle monitors that have not been put into actual use but have been researched.
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