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Structure and Damaging Mechanism of Reciprocating Compressor Valve

Structure and Damaging Mechanism of Reciprocating Compressor Valve

The air valve is an important part of the air compressor. The reciprocating compressor is controlled by the air valve, and the process of suction, compression, exhaust and expansion can be performed alternately and continuously. The performance of the air valve directly affects the discharge volume, discharge temperature, power consumption and operational reliability of the reciprocating compressor.

1. The structure of the reciprocating compressor valve

Reciprocating compressors generally use automatic valves, whose opening and closing are achieved by the pressure difference acting on the valve and the spring force.

1. Valve seat

The valve seat is used to support the valve plate, and an air flow channel controlled by the valve plate is opened on the valve seat. The valve seat of the reciprocating compressor has to withstand the impact of the valve plate, so it is usually made of impact-resistant materials such as steel, cast iron, alloy cast iron, rare earth ductile iron or bronze.

2. Valve plate

The valve plate is an important part that controls the opening and closing of the air flow channel. Reciprocating compressor valve plates are generally made of alloy steel with high strength, good toughness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. They must be quenched and tempered during processing, and their thickness is generally 0.8 mm to 3 mm. In order to improve the impact strength, both sides of the valve plate are ground. The valve disc can also be made of non-metallic materials such as plastic and nylon. This kind of valve plate has good sealing performance, impact resistance and long service life, but it has poor strength and large thermal deformation.

3. Spring

The main function of the spring is to close the air valve in time and ease the impact of the valve plate and the lift limiter. The strip valve is often not equipped with a spring because of its elasticity. When the air valve is working, the spring of the reciprocating compressor is periodically compressed and extended, so it is mostly made of high-grade spring steel wire with higher fatigue strength. Generally, the spring of the exhaust valve is harder than the spring of the suction valve.

4. Lift limiter

The lift limiter is used to limit the lift of the valve plate and also serves as a guide device for the movement of the valve plate. The lift of the valve plate of the reciprocating compressor has a great influence on the operation of the gas valve. If the lift is too large, the impact will be greater when the valve is closed, and the closing will be delayed; if the lift is too small, although the impact force of the valve plate is reduced, because the flow area of the valve is reduced, the resistance loss when the air flows through the valve will be reduced. Increase.

2. Vulnerable mechanism of air valve of reciprocating compressor

The damage of reciprocating compressor valve is mainly caused by mechanical damage, wear and corrosion of valve parts. Valve plates and springs are the most vulnerable parts.

There are two main loads borne by the valves of reciprocating compressors during operation:

1. The uniform load caused by the pressure difference on both sides of the valve plate of the reciprocating compressor. Since the pressure in the cylinder changes periodically from the suction pressure to the discharge pressure, it belongs to the alternating load of the pulsating cycle. Under the action of this load, the valve plate will produce bending fatigue failure, and ring cracks will be produced near its average diameter.

2. Shock load caused by collision with reciprocating compressor lift limiter and valve seat. The magnitude of the impact force is related to the quality of the valve plate and the movement speed of the valve plate.

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